Palaces For The People
Thursday, December 25, 2003
Mad Cow Case May Bring More Meat Testing
YIKES -- Talk about animal cruelty...
As the American beef industry struggles with its first case of mad cow disease, the Department of Agriculture is debating whether to do far more screening of meat and change the way meat from suspect animals is used, department officials say.
The officials declined to say exactly what they would recommend, but acknowledged that European and Japanese regulators screened millions of animals using tests that take only three hours, fast enough to stop diseased carcasses from being cut up for food.
United States inspectors have tested fewer than 30,000 of the roughly 300 million animals slaughtered in the last nine years, and they get results days or weeks later.
But the American system was never intended to keep sick animals from reaching the public's refrigerators, said Dr. Ron DeHaven, the Agriculture Department's chief veterinarian.
It is "a surveillance system, not a food safety test," Dr. DeHaven said in an interview on Wednesday.
Statistically, it is meant to ensure finding the disease only if it exists in one in a million animals, and only after slaughter.
A beef industry spokesman said Wednesday that cattlemen would endorse adopting more rapid tests.
Western European countries generally test all cattle over two years old, all sick cattle and a small percentage of apparently healthy ones. Last year, they tested 10 million cows. Japan tests all the cows it slaughters each year, 1.2 million.
Dr. DeHaven said Japan tested too much, "like a doctor testing every patient who comes through the door for prostate cancer."
Yesterday the Agriculture Department said that it had received confirmation of its own tests from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in Waybridge, England, that a Holstein cow that was slaughtered on Dec. 9 had the degenerative brain ailment bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease. More testing is planned.
An official close to the investigation said the cow came from Sunny Dene Ranch in Mabton, Wash., which has about 4,000 dairy cows.
American beef is still "extremely safe," said Dr. Daniel L. Engeljohn, a policy analysis official in the Food Safety and Inspection Service in the Agriculture Department, but the discovery of the disease "will spur the U.S. to look at the preventive measures it's had in place for the last decade."
Critics of the industry called the current testing inadequate and said they had been warning for years that mad cow disease was in American cattle but undetected because too few animals were tested.
They accused the Department of Agriculture of failing to be a vigilant guardian over the nation's dinner table and said it did not fulfill the common claim that its inspectors test all obviously sick cows.
How many "downers" — cows too sick to walk — are slaughtered each year is in dispute. The beef industry says the number is only about 60,000 among older animals, while animal rights advocates cite figures based on European herds that suggest the number is nearly 700,000.
The Agriculture Department said its best guess was from a 1999 beef industry survey that estimated there were 195,000 downers on ranches, feedlots and slaughterhouses that year.
In any case, only 20,526 animals were tested last year; through the 1990's, only a few hundred were tested annually.
Which downers might have mad cow disease is also in dispute.
Dr. DeHaven said inspectors tested animals that were twitching, aggressive, nervous, stumbling or showing other signs of brain damage; they also test some dead or unconscious animals, which are not supposed to be sold for food.
The beef industry argues that many animals that are falling down are merely lame. Its critics claim that some downed animals are passed by inspectors because they are just conscious enough to respond to a kick.
Tests in Japan have found the brain-wasting disease in animals that appear healthy.
Although neither Dr. DeHaven nor Dr. Engeljohn would say exactly what changes were contemplated, some food safety experts want changes like those made in Britain, including a ban on selling brains or vertebrae or meat attached to them, mandatory testing of all cattle over 30 months old, and a national ear-tagging system tracking each animal from birth to slaughter. Others want to outlaw giving herbivores any animal-based feed.
In some European countries, diseased carcasses are boiled down, dried into powder and then incinerated.
Dr. Engeljohn said the department might take measures like those Canada adopted after it found a mad cow case in May.
But other than slaughtering and testing the herds in Alberta that the animal came from, Canada did not take aggressive measures compared with those used in Europe and Japan.
Canada has tested only about 10,000 animals in the last decade, and has had a serious backlog of cases. Its one diseased cow was slaughtered in January and probably made into pet food. It was marked for testing because it was thin; pneumonia, not brain disease, was suspected. It was not tested until May.
"Compared to our neighbor to the north, we did pretty well," said Dr. John Maas, a professor of veterinary medicine at the University of California at Davis.
The Washington cow was tested within two weeks, but by then its muscle meat had become food for humans and its spinal cord was sent to a plant that makes food for pets, pigs and poultry. Its brain went to Ames, Iowa, and then to Britain for more testing.
Dr. DeHaven said the department's testing was "not to provide public safety," but to give officials 95 percent certainty that they would eventually detect the disease if it appeared in one animal in a million. There are about 100 million cattle in the United States.
The department has repeatedly called its test, an immunohistochemistry assay, "the gold standard."
But Michael Hansen, a Consumers Union researcher, said the test failed to detect mad cow disease in a 2-year-old bull in Japan this year, while a Western blot test, like those used in Europe, did.
Expanding testing would be "hugely expensive," Dr. DeHaven said. He estimated that it would cost $25 to $50 per animal tested, plus any costs of storing the meat until results were ready. Test makers say that works out to only pennies per pound.
The current system is "grossly inadequate," said Gene Bauston, the president of Farm Sanctuary, a farm-animal rights group in upstate New York. Mr. Bauston said he believed the lone cow found so far was "the tip of the iceberg."
"I think we've had the problem for a decade and it hasn't been detected till now," he said.
Farm Sanctuary obtained U.S.D.A. slaughterhouse records under the Freedom of Information Act, he said, and found that downers with hepatitis, lymphoma, gangrene and other ills had been passed by inspectors.
A spokesman for the National Cattlemen's Beef Association defended the current testing but said it would back the introduction of rapid tests.
"In Europe, they needed to test more animals because they had the disease," said Dr. Gary Weber, the association's vice president for regulatory affairs.
American testing looks only at downers, and Dr. DeHaven said its goal was to test "as many animals as possible" with signs of brain damage.
But inspectors and slaughterhouse workers have said that they see near-dead animals dragged in by chains or forklifts, and inspectors complain that they are pressured to approve them.
Dr. Lester Friedlander, an Agriculture Department veterinarian from 1985 to 1995, said he worked in a huge Pennsylvania plant that specialized in turning old dairy cows into hamburger. It slaughtered 2,000 a day, including 30 to 35 downers, and could have as many as 1,200 cows waiting for him to see when it opened at 5:30 a.m.
Ideally, Dr. Friedlander could pick animals at random and watch them walk, looking for stumbling, facial paralysis, drooping ears and other signs of nerve damage, which can also be caused by rabies or cancer. Instead, he said, department rules let them be walked by in groups of six.
"I'm lucky if I see the second or third," he said. "The sixth? Forget about it."
He said that he rejected 25 to 30 cows a day worth about $500 each, and that when he stopped the production line, managers complained that he was costing them $5,000 a minute. Ultimately, he said, they complained to Washington, and he was transferred. He quit and has since sued the department over his transfer; it is fighting his suit.
The world's most popular tests for prions, the misfolded proteins that cause mad cow, are made by the Prionics AG of Schlieren, Switzerland. Its newest, a luminescence immunoassay, lets one worker screen 200 samples in three hours.
Tests use a small scoop of brain. Scientists are still seeking one for live cows. There is one for scrapies, a prion disease of sheep, Dr. Maas said. It requires cutting a piece of nerve from an inner eyelid.
Mad Cow in America
Mad Cow in America
Published: December 25, 2003
Let's begin with the ifs. If the Holstein cow that was slaughtered in Washington State two weeks ago proves to be an isolated case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease, and if the quarantine of the remaining herd was established in time, and if the cow's herd origin can be determined and the chain of events — including the feed source resulting in that infection — can be identified with no open ends leading into the food supply or the broader national cattle herd, then there is a chance that the American beef and dairy industries will not suffer unduly.
But to every one of these ifs there is a counter-if. And, as the single case of B.S.E. discovered in Canada last May surely proved, this is a disease whose economic effects are dire for the simple reason that a single case leads to the immediate closing of international markets. Within hours after this case was announced on Tuesday, a number of nations closed their borders to American beef, just as we closed our borders this year against Canadian beef and against European beef in the early 1990's.
Cattle growers, industry representatives and the agriculture secretary, Ann Veneman, have gone out of their way to assure Americans of the continued safety of American beef. Their assurances are essentially correct, especially if consumers avoid ground beef and products like hot dogs, salami and bologna, which use meat obtained from systems that are designed to extract every last bit of usable tissue from carcasses. B.S.E. is not communicable among cattle on contact, and though humans can contract a version of it, called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the rate of infection is very low. All of this will be no consolation to cattle growers, who were enjoying historically high prices thanks to the absence of Canadian beef in the market and the Atkins diet fad. At the very least, they will get an unwelcome shock to the system. And at worst, they face the potential nightmare of the European epidemic, which began in Britain in 1986 and led to the destruction of more than a million animals.
This single case will expose the holes in the American system of meat production and disease testing. A tissue sample was taken from the sick Holstein, who could not walk, before it was slaughtered. The cattle industry has long resisted pressure to stop killing this sort of cow, known as a downer, and meat processors have so far refused to ban neck bones and spinal columns, where B.S.E. proteins can lodge, from automatic meat recovery systems. The government needs to dramatically increase the rate of testing nationwide. Last year, according to Secretary Veneman, the U.S.D.A. inspected only 20,526 cattle out of a herd of 35 million. And though the United States has prohibited the feeding of ruminant proteins to other ruminants, a major source of B.S.E. infection, those proteins can still be fed to chickens, pigs and other animals whose tissues end up in cattle feed. The risks that these gaps in the system pose are real and must be addressed swiftly. The fear is that any changes may come too late.