Palaces For The People
Monday, May 31, 2004
Michael Gough and Co-CONspirators

(Part 3a)
by Stewart Fist

... Mike Gough

Steve Milloy writes most of his books in association with the Cato Institute's Director of Science and Risk Studies, Michael Gough, another PR specialist who has long served industry well (particularly the paper industry). Gough once worked for the Office of Technical Assessment (OTA) on the problems of dioxin in Agent Orange and in paper effluent. He visited Australia briefly in 1990 to act as an independent judge on the value of some dioxin research conducted by Dr George Carlo (but forgot to mention their close association).

Gough lists himself as being "against politics-driven government funding of science and in favor of private funding." He's not actually attacking universities and such, he means research of the kind conducted by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration), and medical research not conducted by, and for the benefit of, drug companies. He also wants all defence and welfare research to be out-sourced from profit-making organisations.

There's a lot of corporate benefit in this, apart from just the tax savings. In America, any publicly funded research project must be published in full within a month of completion -- while projects funded privately through private research organisations can be held to be confidential.

Gough has "testified against the Advanced Technology Program, a Department of Commerce corporate welfare program, and against government funding of 'environmental research,' which is focused on extending the underpinnings regulation, not scientific understanding."

Cato credits him thus: "Gough's goals include:

* exposing questionable or 'junk' science;
* illuminating the opportunity costs of resulting regulations; and
* combating the publicÕs fear of chemicals.

This is the position that Milloy and Gough both take. But now let me tell you what Milloy doesn't reveal about himself in his C/V at the junkscience site. ...


Neufeld Letter to
TASSC Advisory Board Members

February 10, 1998

Members of the TASSC Advisory Board
Professor Mickey Edwards
Dr. Bruce Ames
Mr. Michael Fumento
Dr. John Graham
Dr. James Steele
Dr. Lester Lave
Dr. Alice Ottoboni
Dr. Frederick Seitz
Dr. Michael Gough ...

... NPR framed the government scientists it cited as neutral experts, pinning the story to the claim by the Office of Technology Assessment's Michael Gough that new scientific data calls into question the toxicity of dioxin. Reconsideration of dioxin standards by the EPA, however, was based principally on industry-funded studies, one of which was written by Gough himself while on sabbatical from his government job. ...

... The NPR report portrayed these scientists as objective experts, while activists were presented as the only partisan players. However, though Michael Gough now works for government, his research was previously funded by the paper industry.[He is now 'scientific director of the Cato Institute and an associate of Junkman Steve Milloy. S.F.] ...

... This is the way the cellular mobile phone industry conducted its health research during the period 1993 and 1999.
Dr George Carlo, a long-term science-entrepreneur for the tobacco industry, was chosen by PR company
Burson-Marsteller for the Cellular Telephone Industry Association (CTIA) and set up with a pseudo-science funding
organisation (WTR) to waste $25 million, and delay the health regulation by five years. ...

... For years Carlo had been a consultant in external tobacco smoke (ETS) for Phillip Morris, employed through APCO & Associates, the PR company which handled the corruption of legitimate science for the tobacco industry.

This was the company which created the fictitious TASSC (The Advancement for Sound Science Coalition) and put junkman Steve Milloy in charge. Milloy now pretends that his junkscience pages are run by another group, but the domain name is still registered by TASSC. There is more on TASSC and Milloy in this site at the Junkscience Index pages.

George Carlo was a key member of TASSC, and Ian Munro was also involved. Carlo was nominally contracted through his company Health & Environmental Sciences (HES) by APCO in America. When they decided to extend the TASSC operations to Europe, he was handed over to work with Burson-Marsteller in Europe (both for Phillip Morris).

His express job was to organise and assist in the identification of scientists who might be persuaded financially to give evidence on behalf of the tobacco industry while claiming to be independent scientists. This was known by the PM codename "Whitecoats". ...

... 1981: The Agent Orange herbicide used in Vietnam was also a dioxin problem and this year Carlo begins serving on the US Congress - Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) panel on Agent Orange. He continues on this panel for at least ten years.

[Carlo]...served in diverse scientific advisory capacities, including membership on the US. Congress Office of Technology Assessment Agent Orange Advisory Panel. (Carlo biog)

In these years he met two other scientists who would later figure strongly in his life: Dr Michael LeVois, another epidemiologist working at this time for the Veterans, and Dr Michael Gough who was the dioxin represenative for the government in the OTA. LeVois became a partner in HES, while Gough moved on to Resources for the Future and later the Cato institute and provided him with back-up when needed.

Cell phone research context:

1982: Dr William Morton of the University of Oregon finds a significant link between low-levels of radio (MF) radiation from television towers and higher rates in Portland residents of lymphatic leukemia, cancers of the uterus, and breast cancer.

1987: Dr Richard Stevens, writing in the American Journal of Epidemiology, suggests that increased rates of breast cancer might possibly be associated with EMF

1986: The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorisation Act (SARA) increases the Superfund to $8.5 billion, and compels private cleanups. Carlo says he was consulted by a congressional committee here also.

Reaganite zealots, Michael Gough (with the government Office of Technical Assessment (OTA), then with a conservative think-tank called "Resources for the Future") and con-man Steve Milloy (working through NEPI, MBE and later the EOP Group) were also involved in spin-doctoring the Superfund problems on behalf of the large corporations and the government. ...

APCO & Associates

Nominally 'founded' by Margery Kraus, but in fact the brain-child of giant Washington legal firm Arnold & Porters (the 'AP in APCo) at a time when they dominated the board of Philip Morris.

They specialised in secretive-science activities and the associated publicity and promotion of their particular brand of junk-science. They also own and run an extensive list of fake grass-roots ('astroturf') organisations and organise 'coalitions' of companies with similar interests (ie. product-liability). The main fake grassroots concerns here are:

* TASSC - The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition - supposedly important scientists who oppose 'junk science' (which APCO defines!)
* ATRA - American Tort Reform Association - a coalition of industries which pay to keep product liability laws under attack, and promote the idea that these are always unfair.
* - Steve Milloy's satirical attacks on specific science reports not helpful to APCO's client-customer interests. This includes New York Times and Wall Street Journal articles, and syndicated material in regional newspapers by Steve Milloy, Michael Gough, and Michael Fumento (among others).

The Cato Institute, Heartland Foundation, Citizens for a Sound Economy and many other similar organisations are also recruited to serve APCO's cause.

... Milloy is an 'adjunct scholar' at the Cato Institute ... He is also a columnist for and runs an organisation called Citizens for the Integrity of Science, (CFIS). Details about CFIS are scant but it appears to have some sort of board, of which only two members, including Milloy, are known. The other is Michael Gough of the Competitive Enterprise Institute (and Cato) who is the co-author with Milloy of Silencing Science (Cato Institute 1998).

Milloy was a leader in the already defunct, a web site launched in August 2000 ... Other coalition members listed included Elizabeth Whelan of the American Council on Science and Health, Alex Avery and Michael Fumento of the Hudson Institute and Michael Gough of the Cato Institute. NoMoreScares disappeared almost as quickly as it was brought into existence, only to be replaced by

Both were used to publish 'The Fear Profiteers', by Milloy, Fumento, Gough, Whelan, John Carlisle and Henry Miller. ...

... The internet site, (Citizens for the Integrity of Science), is registered to Steve Milloy's home address in posh Potomac, MD, with Steve Milloy listed as the administrative contact. So who is actually paying for We don't know, and Milloy has repeatedly refused to disclose his patrons. Steve Milloy answers question of who pays for (annoyingly in the third person), "Steve Milloy [is paying for]. But who pays isn't important; the substance is. Steve figures he has the junk science debate won when an opponent raises a collateral issue like funding." Collatoral issue, Steve? We see it is pretty central, especially if former (?) client Monsanto is paying for all that pro-biotech spin, for example. And can you blame us if we wonder why Milloy is pretending to run a non-profit that exists as nothing more than the same phone number set up for an known tobacco industry front group in 1993?

CFIS does appear to have some sort of board, though we know of only two members, including Milloy. In a May 11,1999 Freedom of Information Act filed by Citizens for the Integrity of Science posted on the Junkscience web page, Steve Milloy listed himself and Michael Gough of the Competitive Enterprise Institute as "Directors" of Citizens for the Integrity of Science, with TASSC's old 1155 Connecticut address and contact info, which is also Milloy's current business address. ...

... Milloy was a leader in the already defunct, a web site launched in August 2000 primarily to defend biotech food and malign Fenton Communications, one of the only PR firms in Washington DC willing to work with non-profit public interest groups and their relatively small PR budgets. Other coalition members included Elizabeth Whelan of the American Council on Science and Health, Alex Avery and Michael Fumento of the Hudson Institute, National Center for Public Policy Research, Bonner Cohen of the Lexington Institute, and Michael Gough of the Cato Institute. No More Scares disappeared almost as hastily as it was brought into existence, perhaps made redundant by the Guest Choice Network, which is now called "The Center for Consumer Freedom". Who can keep track of who is doing what? (Which is exactly the goal of ever-changing corporate front groups) ...

... The Cato Institute, a libertarian policy think tank, was founded in 1984 by Charles and David Koch who preside over an oil and gas empire based in Wichita, Kansas. Cato claims that it refuses government funding in order to "maintain an independent posture," but the long list of industry contributors to Cato's work indicates very clearly where its priorities lie. Amoco, ARCO, Exxon, Monsanto, and Philip Morris are just a few of the many corporations that contribute to Cato's more than $5 million annual budget. Prominent 'science skeptics' Julian Simon and Patrick Michaels are Senior Fellows at Cato. The Cato Institute is associated with several "wise use" networks and resource directories, including The Environmental Conservation Organization, the Heritage Foundation and is listed in the National Center for Public Policy Research's "wise use" Resource Locator.

The Risk and Science Studies program, run by Michael Gough, is the epicenter of Cato's work in the "sound science" arena. In his writings, Gough hammers at the theme of abuse by the EPA in its peer review process for establishing guidelines on daily pesticide intake. The project also pushes the belief that the science behind risk assessment is flawed.

Cato is in the process of publishing a veritable library of "junk science" books. It has already published one on global warming by Dr. Patrick Michaels, and has two additional tracts by Gough and Steven "The Junk Science Man" Milloy forthcoming on the topic of "science for sale to the highest bidder." Gough and Milloy were co-authors of a January 1996 Wall Street Journal op-ed critical of the science behind the new EPA clean air standards. ...

# Air pollution and mortality in Philadelphia by Steve Milloy
# Blowin' in the wind--Jonathan Samet and air pollution by Steve Milloy
# The EPA's clean air-ogance by Steven J. Milloy and Michael Gough
# EPA's Peer-review Perversion by Steven Milloy and Joel Bucher
# Polluted science by Michael Fumento
# Pope-a-dope? by Steve Milloy
# Smog proposal promises a legacy of high costs and lost lives by Kay Jones and Michael Gough
# EPA's sham science reveals political agenda by Michael Gough

# Bill Clinton Again Betrays the Vets by Michael Fumento
# Clinical findings for the first 1000 Gulf war veterans in the Ministry of Defence's medical assessment programme from the British Medical Journal
# Discussion on the Causes of the Gulf War Syndrome (Crossfire transcript)
# Gulf Lore Syndrome by Michael Fumento

* More Gulf Lore (letters regarding the "Gulf Lore Syndrome" article

# Gulf War Syndrome and the Press by Michael Fumento
# Gulf War Syndrome: Son of Agent Orange by Michael Fumento
# Gulf war syndrome: There may be no specific syndrome, but troops suffer after most wars from the British Medical Journal
# Gulf War Veterans and Illness by Steven Milloy
# House Panel Critical Of Pentagon Gulf War Syndrome Inquiry by Philip Shenon (New York Times)
# How the Media and Lawyers Stir Up False Illness by Michael Fumento
# How the Media Reward Themselves for Dishonesty by Michael Fumento
# Is Gulf War Syndrome for Real? by Michael Gough
# A Sixth Opinion: Unimpeded by science, a presidential panel will declare that Gulf War Syndrome is real by Michael Fumento
# Panel Challenges Gulf War Syndrome from the Washington Post
# The syndrome that isn't from the New York Post
# Boundaries of 'Gulf War Syndrome' Widen; Study Finds Symptoms Among Soldiers Who Weren't There; Cause Still a Mystery from the Washington Post
# The $115 Million Question from the Washington Post
# Pentagon: 2 reports show no link to Gulf War Illness from CNN
# The Times adds to Gulf war Syndrome hysteria by Michael Fumento
# With Gulf War Syndrome, No Disease Is No News By Michael Fumento

Our Stolen Future

* Our Stolen Future: How They Are Insulting Our Intelligence by Steve Milloy

Tulane Study

* A Fungus Among Us by Steve Milloy
* Another Enviro-Scare Debunked by Stephen Safe
* Junk Science: It's The Law by Michael Gough and Steven Milloy
* Nature Buries Science by Steve Milloy
* Of Yeast and Men (with apologies to Mr. Steinbeck) by Steve Milloy
* Once Bitten, Twice Shy: More Tulane Junk Science on Environmental Estrogens? by Steve Milloy
* The Science Magazine Whitewash by Steve Milloy
* Tulane Begins Inquiry into Retracted Research by Steve Milloy
* Tulane Inquiry Clears Lead Researcher from Science
* Tulane Scientists Retract Environmental Estrogen Study by Steve Milloy

# Let Science Judge the Sperm Crisis by Michael Gough
# Birth Study Unfairly Blames Pollution by Michael Gough

... Right-wing policy factories are also stepping up their pro-biotech campaign. Earlier this year, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, which has received money from the oil industry, Philip Morris, and from pharmaceutical and chemical companies, hired Michael Gough, PhD as its "biotechnology advocate" to "help advance the great promise of biotechnology in food production, medicine development and environmental protection." For Gough to even use the phrase "environmental protection" is an interesting exercise in hypocrisy, since he has spent much of his career denying that environmental problems even exist. Gough co-authored Silencing Science with internet "junkman" Steven Milloy (see story in this issue), and he frequently trashes health and environmental advocates on the op-ed pages of publications like the Washington Post, the Detroit News, the Wall Street Journal, the Journal of Commerce, and the Chicago Tribune. The "corporate science" defenders of food biotechnology also include Henry Miller from Stanford University's Hoover Institute and Michael Fumento (also affiliated with CEI and with Consumer Alert, a right-wing "alternative" to Consumers Union), and other pillars of the anti-environment establishment. ...
The Junkyard Dogs of Science

... In addition to the board of directors, ACSH also has a 300-member "board of scientific and policy members." As journalist Beatrice Trum Hunter observes, however, "Many of the advisory board members from academia serve in departments of food science and technology, mainly supported by the generosity of commercial food interests."

Other advisors include familiar names from the list of "usual suspects" who appear regularly as scientific experts in a variety of anti-environmental, pro-industry forums: Dennis Avery, Michael Gough, Patrick J. Michaels, Stephen Safe, and S. Fred Singer, to name a few. Several, including Floy Lilley and J. Gordon Edwards, as well as Moghissi, have written articles for 21st Century and Technology, a publication affiliated with lunatic-fringe conspiracy theorist Lyndon LaRouche. ...

... The same cannot be said for the principal figures in the "No More Scares" campaign. Co-editors of "The Fear Profiteers" included Milloy, Bonner Cohen, John Carlisle, Michael Fumento, Michael Gough, Henry Miller, Kenneth Smith and Elizabeth Whelan. All have a track record of accepting funding from and defending industries that make dangerous products and pollute the environment. Many, including Milloy himself, have been outspoken apologists for the tobacco industry, one of the deadliest consumer products. ...


... Page 12 of this issue describes Michael Fumento’s role in circulating misleading tobacco propaganda. His resume reads like a directory of conservative think tanks: the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Consumer Alert, and Reason magazine -- all recipients of tobacco funding. He is currently a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute, a conservative think tank that spent the 1960s and 1970s envisioning nuclear war scenarios and defending the war in Vietnam, and now devotes itself to attacking environmentalists and defending industry.

Microbial geneticist Michael Gough, a former manager of the Biological and Behavioral Sciences Program at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, oversaw a government inquiry which investigated the Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange and found no adverse effects. In contrast with many people who have studied the subject, Gough has been quoted saying that the risk of cancer from dioxin "may be zero."

When he worked for the government, Gough took a hard line against tobacco. In 1990, he wrote a letter rebuffing an approach from Tom Borelli of Philip Morris regarding the issue of secondhand smoke. "Anything that reduces smoking has substantial health benefits, and making smokers into pariahs, for whatever reasons, does just that," he wrote. Industry apologists have occasionally cited Gough’s comments as evidence of the government’s "unscientific" bias against tobacco.

These opinions, however, have not prevented Gough from working closely with Steven Milloy. Both he and Milloy currently work for the libertarian Cato Institute, under whose auspices they have published a book together, titled Silencing Science. Cato receives funding from both Philip Morris and R.J. Reynolds, and its board of directors includes media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who also sits on the Philip Morris board. Not surprisingly, the Cato Institute has been a fierce defender of the tobacco industry, in publications such as 1998’s "Lies, Damn Lies and 400,000 Smoking-Related Deaths." which claims that tobacco is "far less pernicious than Americans are led to believe. . . . The government should stop lying and stop pretending that smoking-related deaths are anything but a statistical artifact." ...
Straw man fallacy

... One of the strangest (and most obvious) is found in Steven Milloy and Michael Gough's Silencing Science (pages 5 to 7). The authors are in favor of human cloning research, but not because cloning humans is a good thing. Instead we are told that such research may lead to other discoveries, ("On a more mundane level, nonstick Teflon was only a byproduct of putting a man on the moon." But Teflon was discovered accidentally in 1938, when going to the moon was the stuff of science fiction.) We are also told that some research should be banned for ethical reasons. Their examples include the Nazi experiments on concentration camp prisoners, and human radiation experiments in the United States. Then on page 7 they write that "By associating cloning with such horrific experiments, getting a ban on human cloning research will come about as fast--and easily--as a Michael Jordan slam-dunk." But wait; it is Milloy and Gough themselves who did the associating, not the opponents of human cloning! You don't need to be a professional magician to see through such verbal slight of hand. ...

Michael Fumento & Michael Gough (on Fumento's website)

... But as Michael Gough, an asbestos specialist, has pointed out in the periodical Science and Technology, the EPA "has presented no information supporting the predictive value of visual clues for future conditions....

... "Every year the case becomes weaker and weaker that dioxin causes cancer in human beings," says Michael Gough, a scientist with the Competitive Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C. who has studied dioxin for decades. He adds that evidence dioxin causes other noncancerous problems (other than a form of acne shortly after contact with the chemical) ranges from speculative to nonexistent. ...

... Dioxin, the marker for Agent Orange exposure decades ago, is stored in body fat and works its way out into the bloodstream so slowly that it can be measured many years later. Fatter people don't release fat-soluble compounds like dioxin nearly as quickly as thinner people, notes Michael Gough, a biologist who was chairman of a federal advisory panel for the Ranch Hand study from 1990 to 1995. Thus, higher dioxin levels are associated with higher obesity levels. ...

... For example, notes Gough, "There have been several large studies of chemical plant workers in the U.S. and Europe exposed to huge levels of dioxin and the components of Agent Orange. None of these studies have found excesses of diabetes." ...

... "Any study of anybody anywhere in the world with exposure to herbicides was used by IOM," explains Michael Gough, director of science and risk studies at the Cato Institute, a former chairman of the Ranchhand Advisory Committee, and author of the book Dioxin, Agent Orange. ...

... "The EPA didn't mention that there were no more cancers than would be expected, no affects on the immune and nervous systems, no increase in deaths, and no increased birth defects in their children." SAB member and Office of Technology Assessment official Michael Gough told me. "They mentioned nothing that didn't serve their purpose." ...

... "Every year the case becomes weaker and weaker that dioxin causes cancer in human beings," says Michael Gough, a scientist with the Competitive Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C. who has studied dioxin for decades. He adds that evidence dioxin causes other noncancerous problems in humans (other than a form of acne) ranges from speculative to nonexistent. ...

... Fingerhut also found 40 percent more lung cancers than would be expected among those exposed more than one year and with a twenty-year latency period. But according to Michael Gough, author of Dioxin, Agent Orange and program manager of biological applications at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, "The smoking control is terrible." ...

... Other occupational exposures? Remarkably, one appears to be one of the most powerful causes of lung cancer known – asbestos. Fingerhut reported two cases of mesothelioma without specifying in which plants they occurred. Mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of the lung, is associated almost exclusively with asbestos exposure. "If you're finding asbestos-caused mesothelioma," says Gough, "you're practically guaranteeing asbestos-caused lung cancers." ...

... In the case of dioxin, massive human exposure as the result of accidents has resulted in no convincing evidence of long-term harm whatsoever, according to Michael Gough, author of Dioxin, Agent Orange, and currently a program manager at the Office of Technology Assessment. What's more, the EPA is re-evaluating its position on the chemical. ...

... "You cannot run science with the government changing the rules all the time," said Michael Gough, program manager for biological applications for the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. ...

... Perhaps what really killed the cancer panic were National Cancer Institute (NCI) reports, heavily covered by the media, that cancer rates in the U.S., when adjusted for the aging of the population, peaked in 1990. "When the NCI finally said cancer cases are down and so are cancer deaths," says Michael Gough, a scientist with the Competitive Enterprise Institute, "they had to find something." Our Stolen Future gave them that something. ...

... In fact, the issue is not that simple. First, the EPA maintains that visual inspections should determine which materials need to be abated. But as Michael Gough, an asbestos specialist, points out, the EPA's own tests prove that visual inspection is poor predictor of how much asbestos is actually in the air. Air monitoring, in which samples were inspected by microscope, might show that many buildings don't need abatement. But the EPA has declined to set an acceptable exposure level in buildings with such monitoring.

Toy Story by Michael Gough

Save plastic IV-bags so they can save you by Steve Milloy

Soft plastics, softer science by Michael Fumento

Safe Plastics, Poisonous Journalism by Michael Fumento

# Herbicide exposure: link to disease by Michael Gough
# A Killer of Babies Or Just Weeds? by Michael Fumento
Michael Fumento
Wanted for pandering:

... "Any study of anybody anywhere in the world with exposure to herbicides was used by IOM," explains Michael Gough, director of science and risk studies at the Cato Institute, a former chairman of the Ranchhand Advisory Committee, and author of the book Dioxin, Agent Orange. ...

... "It's unbelievably bad what the IOM did," says Gough. "I think one of the major costs of something like this is that all the scientists, government and nongovernment, who have done their best to understand and explain the health of veterans are now discredited."

Thus, he says, it also bodes ill for getting the truth out on Gulf War Syndrome, another alleged disease phenomenon that has more to do with politics than science. ...

... Masquerades Dioxin Policy as Science
Michael Fumento

... SAB member and Office of Technology Assessment official Michael Gough told me. "They mentioned nothing that didn't serve their purpose." ...
Michael Gough AND SEPP OR "S. Fred Singer"

Science Under Siege : How the Environmental Misinformation Campaign Is Affecting Our Lives by Michael Fumento (William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1996)
Silencing Science by Steven Milloy and Michael Gough (1998)

... PANEL #1: RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT, with Dr. Michael Gough, Office of Technology Assessment; Prof. John Graham, director of the Risk Analysis Project, Harvard University School of Public Health; Dr. Christopher Hill, senior policy analyst of the RAND Critical Technologies Institute, formerly with the National Research Council; Mr. Fred L. Smith, president of the Competitive Enterprise Institute, formerly with the Environmental Protection Agency; and Prof. Kip Viscusi of Duke University, editor of Risk Assessment.

Dr. Gough noted that since 1951 the age-adjusted mortality in the United States has dropped by 40 percent, and that the Environmental Protection Agency has effective jurisdiction over sources that generate less than 1 percent of the cancers. ...

... Michael Gough, a biologist, has participated in science policy issues at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, in Washington think tanks, and on various advisory panels.

Contributors: Bruce Ames, Roger Bate, Bernard L. Cohen, Lois Swirsky Gold, William Happer, Joseph P. Martino, Patrick J. Michaels, Henry I. Miller, Robert Nilsson, Stephen Safe, S. Fred Singer ...
Risks, and

... Political Throttling of Science
S. Fred Singer is a retired university professor and the president of a nonprofit policy research organization. In the final chapter in this volume, he describes an attempt by a politically affiliated scientist to silence him, by an attack on his honesty. The attack failed, but a court case was necessary to stop it. ...

... A forthcoming Hoover Press book, The Alchemy of Policymaking: Political Manipulation of Science, edited by Michael Gough, offers insights on the dangers of manipulating science for political gain. ... Hoover fellow Henry Miller contributed a chapter to the book, as did visiting fellow S. Fred Singer. ...

... Had he talked to former Office of Technology Assessment scientist Dr. Michael Gough, he would have learned that EPA based its recent air-quality standards in part on data from an American Cancer Society study but had never actually seen the data, which ACS was unwilling to release for independent examination. ...

... S. Fred Singer, the president of the Fairfax-based Science & Environmental Policy Project, a non-profit policy institute.

... One final note: congratulations to policy analysts Steve Milloy, junk science expert, and Michael Gough, of the Cato Institute, whose latest book, Silencing Science, has become a bestseller at For a time last week, of the 4.7 million titles offered by Amazon, this book was Number 66 in sales. It's still going like hotcakes. We are "green" with envy, and we highly recommend it. ... is compiled by SEPP Research Associate Candace Crandall

... Investor's Business Daily: ... Junk Science Home Page Publisher Steve Milloy and Michael Gough of the Cato Institute in a column say scientist Frederick Seitz is the "prime target of a government smear campaign" as part of the "broader effort to squelch scientific debate on global warming" (8/7/98)


Edited by Michael Gough. Published by Hoover Institution Press (Stanford, Cal) and George C. Marshall Institute (Washington, DC). 2003. 313 pp. Softbound. $15.00 ...

... by S. Fred Singer
Wall Street Journal, January 16, 1997

Steven Milloy and Michael Gough (Jan. 7) point to the inadequate epidemiology backing up the proposed EPA standards for airborne particulates. ...

... A New Book by the George C. Marshall Institute

edited by Michael Gough ...

... Michael Gough, a biologist, has participated in science policy issues at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, in Washington think tanks, and on various advisory panels.

Contributors: Bruce Ames, Roger Bate, Bernard L. Cohen, Lois Swirsky Gold, William Happer, Joseph P. Martino, Patrick J. Michaels, Henry I. Miller, Robert Nilsson, Stephen Safe, S. Fred Singer ...

Understanding the
Interactions and Interests
in Science and Politics
By Adam Kieper, Michael Gough, Steven Hayward,
Robert Walker & William O’Keefe

... William O’Keefe: Good afternoon and welcome to this Marshall Institute Roundtable on politicizing science. We are very pleased to have four very knowledgeable and distinguished people to address the question about who is politicizing science.

This is a topic of great interest to Marshall because our mission involves trying to ensure clear communications on science that bears on public policy issues and to challenge the misuse of science. Last year we published a book with the Hoover Institute that documented the experiences of scientists who had observed politicization first-hand. Fred Singer, who is here today, was one of the authors and Mike Gough was another. ...

... A final point about the excellent speech by Crichton, I didn’t know that he had taken it off his website

Hayward: I just found out this morning. I was surprised.

Singer: Well, I think it is an excellent speech and it’s on the website of the Science and Environmental Policy Project which is ...

... The Politicization of Science
By Michael Gough, editor of Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policy Making &
Jeff Kueter, Executive Director, George Marshall Institute

Science and politics make strange bedfellows. ...

...Politicizing Science: The Alchemy of Policy Making
Introduction: Science, Risks, and Politics – Michael Gough, ed., Adjunct Scholar at the
CATO Institute and former official with the Office of Technology Assessment
Chapter 7: Science or Political Science? An Assessment of the U.S. National Assessment
of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change – Patrick Michaels,
Virginia State Climatologist and Professor of Environmental Sciences at the
University of Virginia
Chapter 8: The Political Science of Agent Orange and Dioxin – Michael Gough
Chapter 11: The Revelle-Gore Story: Attempted Political Suppression of Science – S.
Fred Singer, President of The Science & Environmental Policy Project, and also
Distinguished Research Professor at George Mason University and professor emeritus
of environmental science at the University of Virginia ...

Editorial Advisory Board
S. Fred Singer

... # Calculating Risks: The Spatial and Political Dimensions of Hazardous Waste Policy, (PDF, 3 pp, 62 kb)
Reviewed by Michael Gough ...

Editorial Advisory Board
S. Fred Singer

... Reviews by Michael C. Munger, John D. Leeth, George E. Johnson, James T. Hamilton, and Michael Gough (PDF, 13 pp, 197 kb) ...
For the Record

S. Fred Singer, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project

... Five years ago, Steve Milloy and I wrote that there had been no epidemic of cancer in this country (“The Environmental Cancer Epidemic That Never Was,” Regulation, Vol. 19, No. 2). ... Michael Gough, Cato Institute adjunct scholar.
Where Politics
Trumps Science
Reviewed by S. Fred Singer
S. Fred Singer ( is president of the Science and Environmental Policy Project, a nonprofit policy institute in Fairfax, Virginia ...

... Had Powell talked to former Office of Technology Assessment scientist Dr. Michael Gough, he would have learned that epa based its recent air-quality standards in part on data from a study by the American Cancer Society (acs). ...

... Other advisors include familiar names from the list of "usual suspects" who appear regularly as scientific experts in a variety of anti-environmental, pro-industry forums: Dennis Avery, Michael Gough, Patrick J. Michaels, Stephen Safe, and S. Fred Singer, to name a few. Several, including Floy Lilley and J. Gordon Edwards, as well as Moghissi, have written articles for 21st Century and Technology, a publication affiliated with lunatic-fringe conspiracy theorist Lyndon LaRouche. ...

A research report by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution

Academic Advisory Board
Dr. Michael Gough
Project Director
Congressional Office of Technology Assessment
Dr. S. Fred Singer
Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences
University of Virginia
and President
Science and Environmental Policy Project ...

Strange bedfellows
By William H. Peterson

... The editor of this volume, Michael Gough, is the author of some 40 peer-reviewed papers on health and the environment and has testified some 36 times before Congress. Along with the other scientists who have contributed to the book, Mr. Gough sets out to prove that the troubled relationship continues today, and that although political-scientific cooperation has led to great steps forward in knowledge, it has sometimes elevated politics at the expense of "strong scientific underpinnings."

Mr. Gough links this imbalance of power to the fact that universities and other research institutes are forever hunting for government funding. ...

... Another contributor, S. Fred Singer, relates how in 1991 he and two other scientists, Chauncey Starr and Roger Revelle, published a paper which held that the evidence for global warming due to an atmospheric build-up of carbon dioxide was inconclusive. The three scientists called for no immediate policy action. ...

... Consumer Alert is promulgating the following Proclamation and Principles to demonstrate that Americans favor a new environmental vision that provides hope for our environment, our children, and our future. ...

Earth Day Proclamation Signatories

The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition Steven J. Milloy
American Council on Science and Health Dr. Elizabeth Whelan
Cato Institute Jerry Taylor Michael Gough
Competitive Enterprise Institute Marlo Lewis
National Anxiety Center Alan Caruba
National Center for Public Policy Research David Ridenour
Science and Environmental Policy Project S. Fred Singer
Smokers Fighting Discrimination Dave Pickille

... I hereby support the Principles of a New Environmental Vision

Dr. Elizabeth Whelan
American Council on Science & Health
Jerry Taylor
Michael Gough
Cato Institute
Marlo Lewis, Jr.
Competitive Enterprise Institute
Steven J. Milloy
EPA net, Inc.
John Shanahan
The Heritage Foundation
Alan Caruba
National Anxiety Center
David Ridenour
Natl Ctr for Public Policy Research
S. Fred Singer
Science & Environmental Policy Project


FRED SINGER (Science and Environmental Policy Project)

The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) was founded in 1990 as an affiliate of the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a Moon-funded think tank that provided SEPP with free office space. Since severing its ties with the Moonies and strengthening its links with the conservative Virginia-based George Mason University, SEPP has gone on to hold a number of conferences and seminars attempting to discredit ozone depletion, global warming, acid rain, pesticide exposures, and toxic waste as real or potential threats to human health. Its executive director, Fred Singer, has become the most popular science speaker on the anti-environmental circuit since the death of ex-Washington Governor Dixy Lee Ray.

Fred S. Singer, who in 1994 proposed a $95,000 publicity project to "stem the tide towards ever more onerous controls on energy use," has received consulting fees from Exxon, Shell, Unocal, ARCO, and Sun Oil, and has warned them that they face the same threat as the chemical firms that produced CFCs. "It took only five years to go from... a simple freeze of production [of CFCs]," Singer has written, ". . . to the 1992 decision of a complete production phase-out all on the basis of quite insubstantial science." ...


Director of Cato's Science and Risk Program Cato Institute, a libertarian right-wing think tank, founded in 1977, sponsors policy conferences and distributes publications on issues as diverse as the global economy, military intervention and "ecoterrorism". Cato views the environmental movement and the demands it places on industry as a major obstacle to its vision of small government and an unregulated economy. Ben Bolch and Harold Lyons, authors of a recent CATO book, "Apocalypse Not", argue that "much of the modern environmental movement is a broad based assault on reason and, not surprisingly, a concomitant assault on freedom."

Cato's director of natural resources studies, Jerry Taylor, wrote in "USA Today" that "natural resources are better protected by individual owners with vested interests in their property", than by the government. "Environmental treaties are biased against economic growth despite the proven correlation between wealthy economies and healthy environments."

Among Cato's funders are American Farm Bureau Federation, American Petroleum Institute, Amoco Foundation, ARCO Foundation, Association of International Auto Manufacturers, Exxon, Ford Motor Company Fund, Monsanto, Philip Morris, Proctor & Gamble Fund, Sarah Scaife Foundation, Toyota Motor Sales (Greenpeace Guide to Anti-Environmental Organisations, 1992) The Cato Institute is a founding member of the Wise Use movement (attended The Multiple Use Conference, Nevada 1988, regarded as the founding conference of the movement). ...

... How foul is the air we breathe?
The Wall Street Journal, 28 January 1997, A17
Barry S. Levy, M.D.

... Dr. Levy's letter is immediately followed by one from S. Fred Singer of the Science and Environmental Policy Project. Singer backs up Milloy and Gough, adding that the case against ozone is even weaker than that against particulate matter. He even notes that the EPA has neglected the benefits of protection from skin cancer, since ground level ozone screens out UV rays. In any case, no matter how low the ozone layers are set, there will always be some people who will be adversely affected. He recommends that vulnerable individuals should simply curtail strenuous activities during "the occasional days when meteorological conditions cause ozone alerts." ...

... School Buses and Diesel Fuel, Prepared for the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH), by Daland R. Juberg, Ph.D ...

... S. Fred Singer ... Michael Gough ...


Posted: Fri May 21, 2004 8:59 pm Post subject: Alexis de SMOKEville: aiding corporate serial murderers sinc
Establishing a PATTERN of DECEPTIVENESS --
The S. FRED SINGER -- Alexis de SMOKEville connections:


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