Palaces For The People
Tuesday, June 01, 2004
George C. Marshall Institute
According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest: "The Marshall Institute investigates facts concerning global climate change. The Institute also studies the implications of the Kyoto Protocol upon national security. The Institute is partially supported by the Exxon Education Foundation and American Standard Companies."

More info culled by Media Transparency

Total $ Granted: $ 5,937,803
For Years: 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985
# Grants: 84

$75,000 Earhart Foundation

$3,200,303 The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation

44) George C. Marshall Institute $302,500
Recipients by amount granted by the Carthage Foundation (SCAIFE - Gulf Oil)
32) George C. Marshall Institute $2,010,000
186) George C. Marshall Foundation $100,000
Recipients by amount granted by the Sarah Scaife Foundation (SCAIFE - Gulf Oil)
67) Friends of George C. Marshall, Inc., The $50,000
Recipients by amount granted by the Allegheny Foundation (SCAIFE - Gulf Oil)

126) George C. Marshall Institute $350,000
496) George C. Marshall Foundation $10,000
Recipients by amount granted by the by the John M. Olin Foundation

Board of Directors (2004)

* Robert Jastrow, Chairman of the Board of Directors (GMI); former Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Mount Wilson Institute
* Frederick Seitz, Chairman Emeritus (GMI); President Emeritus of Rockefeller University
* William O'Keefe, President (GMI); President, Solutions Consulting, Inc.
* Bruce N. Ames, Professor of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley
* Sallie Baliunas, Astrophysicist
* Gregory Canavan, Scientific Advisor, Physics Division
* Thomas L. Clancy, Jr., Author
* William Happer, Eugene Higgens Professor of Physics, Princeton University
* Willis M. Hawkins, Senior Advisor to Lockheed Corporation
* Bernadine Healy, Cleveland Clinic Foundation
* John H. Moore, President, Grove City College
* Robert Sproull, Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Rochester
* Chauncey Starr, President Emeritus, Electric Power Research Institute

* Jeffrey D. Kueter, Executive Director, Compensation: $55,833 (FYE 2002)
SALARIES: From IRS form 990, filed 2001:
* Lynn Wallis, Office Manager, $63,264
* Jellinek, Schwartz and Connolly, Mgmt Consultants, $78,000
* Line 25: Compensation of Officers, Directors, etc. $114,290
* Line 26: Other Salaries and wages, $135,864 ((c) Mgmt & Gen. $78,021)

SALARIES: From IRS form 990, filed 1999:
* Line 25: Compensation of Officers, Directors, etc. $144,796
* Line 26: Other Salaries and wages, $87,560 ((c) Mgmt & Gen. $37,742)
* Page 24: Jeffrey Salmon, Ex.Dir., $102,796
* Page 24: Robert Jastrow, Director, $42,000
"During 2002, ExxonMobil donated $90,000 to the Institute, $80,000 of which was for the 'Global Climate Change Program'." (; accessed 01/28/04)

The Institute is partially supported by the Exxon Education Foundation and American Standard Companies. (; removed 5/3/01, reaccessed 11/25/03)

George C. Marshall Board of Directors outside connections:

* Frederick Seitz: Research Corporation (Directors Emeritus 2004,; Chairman, Board of Directors, The Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP), (2004,; Atlantic Legal Foundation, Director Emeritus (2004,, Richard Lounsbery Foundation, director (2004,; Editorial Board, Technology Journal (2004,; Member, Ad Hoc Committee 0n Smoking And Health Of The National Cancer Institute's Presidentially-Appointed National Cancer Advisory Board (Feb, 1973,; Adviser to RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company corporate gifts to science research, (1985-1986,; Member, Media Resource Advisory Committee, Scientists'Institute for Public lnformation (Philip Morris-funded (1993,; Advisory Board, TASSC-- The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition, (1998,; "permanent consultant" to the R. J. Reynolds tobacco company (1979,; Author of Anti-Kyoto Petition Project (1998,; OISM, Anti-Kyoto Petition, (1998,; co-author with Marshall Institute Director, "Do people cause global warming? What the scientific evidence reveals", publisheb by Heartland Institute (2001,; co-authors, Dr. Robert Jastrow, Dr. William Nierenberg, and Dr. Frederick Seitz, "Scientific Perspectives on the Greenhouse Problem" (Washington, DC: The George C. Marshall Institute, 1990,;

* Robert Jastrow: author "Scientific Perspectives on the Greenhouse Problem" by: Robert Jastrow, William Nierenberg, Frederick Seitz (1991); Dr. Sallie Baliunas interviewed Dr. Robert Jastrow, Tech Central Station, (2002,; Substitute speaker for absent Sallie Baliunas at OISM (origin point of Anti-Kyoto Petition created by Seitz, Balliunas, Soon of the Marshall Institute, (2003,; Listed as industry-compliant speaker, National Center for Public Policy Research, (1996, alongside of Balliunas, Fred Singer, Fumento, Avery, Balling, Michaels, Milloy, Ridenour, Ames;

* Bruce N. Ames
We can prevent cancer: "If we behave ourselves" an interview with Dr. Bruce N. Ames

"My passion is preventing cancer, and the way to do that is to get people to eat decent diets and stop smoking. Those are the two things that really matter."

Curiously, Ames is very close associate and collaborator with several identified covert tobacco company "whitecoats": S. Fred Singer, Frederick Seitz, Steven Milloy, Michael Gough. Milloy still works for the tobacco industry, Singer did for two decades, Gough (like Ames) made conspicuous public anti-smoking statements, but Gough secretly was advising the Tobacco Institute how to defeat EPA regulation of 2nd-hand smoke.

In fact, citation #10, page 13 of "Science, Economics, and Environmental Policy: A Critical Examination" a research report conducted by the Alexis De Tocqueville Institution coincidently enlists supportive quotes from both Michael Gough and Bruce Ames. [] This report was constructed by Singer, as "Senior Reviewer", while omitting he had a vested interest in AdTI as a "Senior Fellow", and gave appreciation to help from Steven Milloy. Of the peer-reviewers of this corrupt report were a majority of tobacco-paid agents in "whitecoats" including Gough.
"The Epa and the Science of Environmental Tobacco Smoke", another Alexis de SMOKEville report co-authored by S. Fred Singer, designed to keep corporate serial murderers free from EPA regulations. Ames provides generous quotes that are free to be used in the two AdTI "whitecoats" smokescreens.
In 1984 the Council for Tobacco Research received this begging letter for $500, or $5,000, touting speakers like Bruce Ames, and whose name is in the organizing committee list on bottom of page 3.
Thanks for the $2,000 check, here's two brochures, and we are holding one place for a representative from The Council of Tobacco Research, signed, the sincerely tobacco-haters organization.
(1981) Dear Council for Tobacco Research, send $3,000 more dollars. PS, we hate your guts, and that goes for Bruce Ames too.
Page 18: ... We [British American Tobacco Company] all are, or should be, indebted to Bruce Ames and his collaborators, and to Alvan Feinstein. These people, wearing the cloak of science tried to tell the world that the substance condemners are not "doing the right thing." Ames's article with Renae Magaw and Lois Gold generated considerable public attention. Many of you, we are sure, read that article. The authors argued that animal cancer tests are not reliable predictors of human risks of cancer. They also offered another more important thesis, that there are many natural chemicals which are more potent carcinogens than pesticide residues in foods. ...

... Scientists and regulators are persecuting chemical manufacturers; we are worrying about the wrong things; and peanut butter and mushrooms may cause cancer. Of course these are oversimplifications of Ames's ideas, but the public has been prepared to accept similar oversimplifications by the propaganda of substance condemners. ...
"Can Organically Grown Tomatoes Give You Cancer? They Are About As Likely to As the Pesticides That the Epa So Righteously Bans. Ban All Plants - They Pollute"

"I think the EPA, kills people," declares Bruce Ames from his overcrowded laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has served as professor of biochemistry and molecular biology since 1968. ...

{{So now you know: it wasn't those cigs caused all that lung cancer, it was tomatoes.}}

* Sallie Baliunas: Co-authored papers with Sherwood Idso and Willie Soon, (; co-conspirator in OISM counterfeit "NAS" Anti-Kyoto petition with Willie Soon, Fred Seitz, (1998); The sequel to Western Fuels' "The Greening of Planet Earth", "The Greening of the Planet Earth Continues", video release will be followed by a panel discussion with four veteran global warming skeptic scientists, Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling, Sallie Baliunas and Sylvan Wittwer, all of the Greening Earth Society(1998,; Competitive Enterprise Institute "expert" (2004,; Collegians For A Constructive Tomorrow speakers bureau listed (2004,; Listed "expert" speaker); National Center for Public Policy Research listed "expert" speaker (1998; Energy "Expert", Annenberg/CPB Channel (2004,; "Climate expert", National Mining Association, (2004,; declared "expert on climate change" by Heritage Foundation, (2003,; co-host (along with frequent co-author Willie Soon) of Tech Central Station - owned by DCI Group, a PR company (2004,,;


Exxon was a prominent member of the Global Climate Coalition (GCC), which until early 2002 was the most outspoken and confrontational lobby group battling global commitments to emissions reductions. (See information about front groups in part III) In 1992 the GCC began using well-known climate skeptics like Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and Fred Singer (all partly funded by Exxon) as "experts" at press conferences in its attempts to undermine the credibility of accepted climate science and the findings of the IPCC.7 [7 GCC press release: ‘World’s Energy Policy Should Not be Based on Feelings,’ 27 February 1992.]

The GCC hired a public relations firm in 1994 to take climate skeptic Dr. Sallie Baliunas on a media tour.10 Through the conservative think tank, The George C. Marshall Institute, Baliunas has published several reports which attempt to show that human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels play no role in global warming, that science does not support the prospect of dangerous climate change11, and that scientific findings do not support federal regulation of emissions.12 Baliunas is an expert in astrophysics, not climate, and her reports were not subject to the peer review process. Her articles have included arguments that efforts to solve the problem of ozone depletion are misdirected; she also works for the Greening Earth Society, a front group for the Western Fuels Association (the coal industry) which promotes the idea and that the increased CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels is greening the earth (leading to more plant growth). [10 Ties that Blind, Ozone Action, March 1996. 11 Are Human Activities Causing Global Warming? Published by George C. Marshall Institute, 1996; and ‘Human Activity is Not the Cause of Global Warming,’ Press Release from the Marshall Institute, 10 April 1996. 12 Sallie Baliunas, "Ozone and Global Warming: Are the Problems Real?" George C. Marshall Institute, December 1994. 13 Sallie Baliunas, "Ozone and Global Warming: Are the Problems Real?" George C. Marshall Institute, December 1994; and Greening Earth Society,]

In April 1998, Exxon took part in the planning of a $6 million industry public relations offensive -- the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Global Climate Science Communications Action Plan. The plan aimed to re-inject uncertainty into the U.S. public’s perception of climate science in the run up to the climate negotiations in Buenos Aires that November.19 The Exxon representative in the group formulating this plan was Randy Randol, who penned the 2002 memo calling for the ouster of Dr. Robert Watson, Chair of the IPCC.20 (See appendix and below for ExxonMobil memo dated 6 February 2001.) [19 Plan contents provided in memo from Joe Walker to Global Climate Science Team, subject: "Draft Global Climate Science Communications Plan," that was leaked to The New York Times, April 1998; reprinted in The Oil Industry and Climate Change, Greenpeace International, August 1998, available at See Appendix for API memo. 20 Ibid.]

American Petroleum Institute (API)
ExxonMobil is a financial supporter of the API and sits on the board. Lee Raymond, CEO of ExxonMobil, was the chair of the API from 1995-1997.179 U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney has been a member of its board of directors, and the API remained a member of the Global Climate Coalition until the GCC folded in early 2002.

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